Technical debt exists in code architecture and in code base. Debt appears when product requirements changes and new features are built in without taking care needed, small or big, architectural changes. Your code base starts to contain more and more shortcuts which will make it more difficult to develop system. Development speed will slow down. Finally you are so slow that developing the system does not make any sense. That sucks.
Why it’s difficult to remove technical debt? In this post I will introduce some common obstacles. I will show that usually debt comes because short term goals drives over long term goals and that without craftsmanship of the whole company or department product will have more and more technical debt. We need to start fight against debt.
Short term goals are driving
It’s easy to be blind for long term goals because of short term goals. You do what you were asked to do and deliver it fast. Everybody is happy. You have taken some shortcuts but who cares. Feedback is positive and mood is high. Some guys from the team are praised for finding clever shortcuts, like using database fields for totally different things than their name says, or just controlling same functionality with more and more input parameters and if -branches. Short term speed tastes good.
I think this short term goal achieving is ok. As far as it’s understood that by doing these shortcuts you take debt which you need to pay back. If only short term goals are driving the development and short cuts are taken iteration after iteration and year after year then your product will be screwed up. There has to be balance between short and long term goals. Product owner has a major role in goal setting.
Technical debt is difficult to measure
If you don’t have any measurements for technical debt then it’s difficult to know that it exists. For example: As product owner, do you know how many shortcuts were taken in last sprint? Do you know their effect on upcoming sprints? It might be that development team is the only one who knows current technical debt amount. When you don’t know about technical debt in your product then you are not ready to eliminate it. Most likely paying debt back is not in your backlog, or is it? After all, reducing technical debt will only bring indirect value for customer.
What happens if we combine these two first problems? Only developers know about technical debt and you are rewarding them to take more debt. You might see that velocity will drop and what you will do? You put more pressure to get to the deadlines. And again more short cuts are made. It’s like product has fallen to ground and you are still kicking it. Lucky us, product doesn’t feel pain (yet).
Ok, we know we need to know if technical debt exists and some way to measure it. Then we look those 1000 classes with 20 000 LOC each and without any automated tests. Critical business processes use the existing build binaries every second. What do we do? Maybe some sensitive guy starts to cry? Somebody proposes to refactor it all (product owner opens bottle of Jack). Well yes, this is serious situation. Then we need the leading developer to stand and say: “I have some ideas so let’s not make it any worse than this, let us know where it’s most valuable to start to remove technical debt and when we will start?”
Usually technical debt is compared to financial debt. I have an another example in my mind. Technical debt is like a unhealthy food. Like candies and cakes. It tastes good but if you eat those candies all the time you will start to get fat, you will end up being in not a good shape. Same way as product architecture starts to be in bad shape. If you don’t continuously measure your weight you might not notice effect from candies. Fat comes slowly. At the beginning you might not even notice it. At some point you will find out that you are too fat. You will notice that you can’t run anymore. Maybe then you will start to think differently about eating candies and start to do some walking exercises.
Be as serious with technical debt as you are with your own health. As a product owner try
- Balancing short and long term goals for product development
- Studying and understanding your product and technical debt in it
- Small steps to get rid of debt
Otherwise principles of technical debt will kill your product.